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A Guide to Physical Therapy Billing Units: Optimize Your Revenue

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Effective management of physical therapy billing units is essential for healthcare providers seeking both financial stability and optimal patient care. Billing units in the context of physical therapy refer to standardized measurements used to quantify and bill for therapeutic services rendered to patients. These units serve as a crucial link between the services provided by physical therapists and the reimbursement process from insurance companies or other payers. 

Essentially, physical therapy billing units enable healthcare professionals to accurately document and communicate the value of their services, ensuring fair compensation for their expertise while maintaining compliance with industry regulations. 

Let’s explore the complexities of PT billing units, offering healthcare providers insights into optimizing their billing practices for improved financial health and enhanced patient outcomes.

What are PT Billing Units?

PT billing units act as a quantifiable measure, representing the duration and complexity of therapeutic services delivered during a patient session. It is crucial to note that various payors may have distinct guidelines concerning minimum treatment times and the allowable number of units per session. 

To prevent claim denials and secure fair reimbursement, healthcare professionals must meticulously calculate billing units in adherence to these rules. The accuracy of these calculations serves as a linchpin, ensuring that services are appropriately documented and billed. Recognizing the importance of precision in this process, healthcare providers can leverage valuable resources such as PT billing guides and specialized software. 

These tools play a pivotal role in maintaining compliance with industry standards, fostering efficient billing practices, and ultimately contributing to the financial well-being of healthcare practices.

Types of PT Billing Units
Types of PT Billing Units

In physical therapy billing, various types of billing units exist, each designed to capture different aspects of therapeutic interventions. Understanding these types is crucial for healthcare providers aiming to navigate the intricacies of billing accurately.

1. Timed Units: These are based on the duration of the therapeutic service provided. Typically measured in 15-minute increments, timed units reflect the amount of time spent on direct patient care. Accurate time documentation is essential for precise billing.

2. Untimed Units: Some services are billed irrespective of the time spent, known as untimed units. These are often flat-rate charges for specific procedures or assessments that don’t rely on the duration of the session.

3. Service-Based Units: These units are assigned to specific therapeutic services or procedures, emphasizing the type of intervention rather than the time invested. Healthcare providers should be familiar with the designated units for various services to ensure proper billing.

4. Evaluation and Management Units: These units are specific to the evaluation and management of a patient’s condition. Proper documentation of the assessment process is crucial, as it directly influences the assignment of these units.

5. Supervised Modalities Units: For sessions involving the supervision of therapeutic modalities, special units are designated. Providers must accurately reflect the level of supervision to align with billing requirements.

Medicare PT Billing Units

Understanding Medicare billing units for physical therapy is crucial for healthcare providers to ensure accurate reimbursement. Medicare follows specific guidelines for different therapeutic services, with each service corresponding to a defined number of billing units. 

Here are three examples illustrating how billing units are calculated for Medicare-reimbursed physical therapy services:

Example 1:

ServiceDurationBilling Units
97112 Neuromuscular Re-education24 minutes2
97110 Therapeutic Exercise (TherEx)15 minutes1
97116 Gait Training18 minutes1
Total Minutes574

In this example, a total of 57 minutes allows for billing 4 units, adhering to Medicare guidelines.

Example 2:

ServiceDurationBilling Units
97140 Manual Therapy12 minutes1
97110 Therapeutic Exercise (TherEx)23 minutes2
97112 Neuromuscular Re-education17 minutes1
Total Minutes523

Despite a total session duration of 52 minutes, only 3 units can be billed based on Medicare criteria.

Example 3:

ServiceDurationBilling Units
97110 Therapeutic Exercise (TherEx)35 minutes2
97035 Ultrasound (Timed)10 minutes1
97014 Electrical Stimulation (Untimed)30 minutes1
97112 Neuromuscular Re-education12 minutes1
Total Minutes875

Physical Therapy Billing Units Minutes – Timed and Untimed Services

Accurate billing of physical therapy services involves a comprehensive understanding of timed and untimed services, each requiring distinct billing approaches. Let’s delve into these billing units to optimize reimbursement and ensure precise documentation.

Timed Services

Timed services are invoiced based on the duration spent providing treatment, with the application of the 8-minute rule to calculate billing units. These services demand continuous attention or contact with the patient, often involving interactive and hands-on therapeutic interventions. 

The meticulous use of CPT codes for timed services is essential for accurate billing. Below are some common CPT codes associated with timed services:

CPT CodeDescription
97110Therapeutic Exercise
97112Neuromuscular Re-education
97116Gait Training

Understanding and appropriately utilizing these codes are integral to maximizing reimbursement for timed services.

Untimed Services

Untimed services, as the name implies, are not billed based on a specific duration but rather on the complexity and type of service provided. Services such as evaluations or assessments fall under this category and are billed as a single untimed service, irrespective of the time spent with the patient. 

Here are some common CPT codes associated with untimed services:

CPT CodeDescription
97161Physical Therapy Evaluation
97164Re-evaluation of Physical Therapy
97001Physical Therapy Evaluation (Initial)

Providers must distinguish between timed and untimed services to accurately document and bill for each type, ensuring compliance with billing guidelines.

Billing Units for Timed Services

97110 – Therapeutic Exercise:

  • Duration: 20 minutes
  • Billing Units: 2

97112 – Neuromuscular Re-education:

  • Duration: 15 minutes
  • Billing Units: 1

97116 – Gait Training:

  • Duration: 25 minutes
  • Billing Units: 2

Billing Units for Untimed Services

97161 – Physical Therapy Evaluation:

  • Single untimed service regardless of duration.

97164 – Re-evaluation of Physical Therapy:

  • Single untimed service regardless of duration.

Billing Physical Therapy Units: Effective Strategies and Tips

Billing Physical Therapy Units: Effective Strategies and Tips

Accurate billing of physical therapy units is pivotal for healthcare providers, influencing the financial health of practices and ensuring fair compensation for therapeutic services. Here are key strategies and tips to optimize the PT billing process:

Billing units represent the value of services provided and are the key to maximizing your practice’s revenue and ensuring proper compensation for your therapists’ time and expertise.

CPT Codes Understanding:

Accurately assign appropriate CPT codes for each service rendered during a patient encounter. Invest in resources like the Physical Therapy Billing Guide and CPT codebooks to stay up-to-date on the latest codes and their specific requirements.

Regularly train staff on proper coding practices to minimize errors and claim denials.

Understand Billing Unit Types:

Distinguish between time-based and service-based units. Time-based units are billed in 15-minute increments for direct, one-on-one treatment, following the “8-minute rule” for any remaining minutes exceeding 8. Service-based units are billed for specific services regardless of time.

Document Everything Thoroughly:

Detailed and accurate documentation supports claims and justifies the number of units billed. Include the date of service, patient’s name and diagnosis, CPT codes used, duration of each service, and specific treatment details. Utilize electronic medical records (EMRs) for streamlined and consistent documentation.

Leverage Technology:

Billing software automates aspects of the billing process, saving time and reducing errors. Assist with CPT code selection, charge capture, claim generation, eligibility verification, prior authorization tracking, and insurance claim submission and tracking.

Stay Compliant and Updated:

Stay informed about changes in billing regulations and payer policies to avoid denials and penalties. Attend coding and billing workshops or subscribe to industry publications for the latest trends. Conduct regular internal audits to address billing errors proactively.

How to Complete Common Billing Unit Scenarios in Physical Therapy

Accurate billing in physical therapy is essential for maximizing revenue and ensuring fair compensation for therapeutic services. Navigating common billing unit scenarios requires a comprehensive understanding of timed and untimed services, as well as adherence to industry guidelines. 

Here’s a guide to completing some prevalent billing scenarios in physical therapy:

Scenario 1: Timed Services Billing

Service Provided: Therapeutic Exercise (CPT Code 97110)

Duration: 30 minutes

Calculate Billing Units: 

  • Apply the 8-minute rule: 30 minutes / 15-minute increment = 2 units.


  • Clearly document the duration and nature of the therapeutic exercise.
  • Use appropriate modifiers if needed.

Scenario 2: Untimed Services Billing

Service Provided: Physical Therapy Evaluation (CPT Code 97161)

Duration: 45 minutes

Billing Units:

  • Untimed services are billed as a single unit regardless of duration.


  • Detail the comprehensive evaluation process.
  • Specify any additional assessments conducted.

Scenario 3: Combination of Timed and Untimed Services

Services Provided:

Neuromuscular Re-education (CPT Code 97112) – 20 minutes (2 units)

Physical Therapy Evaluation (CPT Code 97161) – 30 minutes (1 unit)

Calculate Total Billing Units:

  • Timed services: 20 minutes / 15-minute increment = 2 units.
  • Untimed services: 1 unit.
  • Total billing units = 3.


  • Clearly distinguish between timed and untimed services in the documentation.
  • Provide detailed information on both services rendered.

Scenario 4: Group Therapy Session

Service Provided: Therapeutic Exercise (CPT Code 97110)

Duration: 45 minutes (for a group of three patients)

Calculate Billing Units:

  • Group therapy rules apply: 45 minutes / 15-minute increment = 3 units (considering the time spent on individual patient care within the group).


  • Clearly indicate the group nature of the session.
  • Document each patient’s active participation.

Scenario 5: Extended Timed Service

Service Provided: Neuromuscular Re-education (CPT Code 97112)

Duration: 40 minutes

Calculate Billing Units:

  • Apply the 8-minute rule: 40 minutes / 15-minute increment = 3 units.


  • Emphasize the extended duration and the necessity for prolonged therapeutic intervention.
  • Include any additional complexities or patient-specific factors.


In physical therapy billing, timed and untimed services are pivotal for accurate reimbursement and financial health. From understanding CPT codes to navigating diverse billing scenarios, healthcare providers can optimize their practices by following these effective strategies. By embracing precise documentation, leveraging technology, and staying compliant, providers can ensure seamless billing processes that maximize revenue and prioritize quality patient care.

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